Effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate of milk on the texture and microstructure of yogurt

Ozcan T. , Horne D., Lucey J. A.

JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE, vol.94, no.11, pp.5278-5288, 2011 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 94 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.3168/jds.2010-3932
  • Title of Journal : JOURNAL OF DAIRY SCIENCE
  • Page Numbers: pp.5278-5288


The effect of increasing the colloidal calcium phosphate (CCP) content on the physical, rheological, and microstructural properties of yogurt was investigated. The CCP content of heated (85 degrees C for 30 min) milk was increased by increasing the pH by the addition of alkali (NaOH). Alkalized milk was dialyzed against pasteurized skim milk at approximately 4 degrees C for 72 h to attempt to restore the original pH and soluble Ca content. By adjustment of the milk to pH values 7.45, 8.84, 10.06, and 10.73, the CCP content was increased to approximately 107, 116, 123, and 128%, respectively, relative to the concentration in heated milk. During fermentation of milk, the storage modulus (G') and loss tangent values of yogurts were measured using dynamic oscillatory rheology. Large deformation rheological properties were also measured. The microstructure of yogurt was observed using fluorescence microscopy, and whey separation was determined. Acid-base titration was used to evaluate changes in the CCP content in milk. Total Ca and casein-bound Ca increased with an increase in the pH value of alkalization. During acidification, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 6.7 to 5.2 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. When acidified milk was titrated with alkali, elevated buffering occurred in milk between pH values 5.6 to 6.4 with an increase in the pH of alkalization. The high residual pH of milk after dialysis could be responsible for the decreased contents of soluble Ca in these milks. The pH of gelation was higher in all dialyzed samples compared with the heated control milk, and the gelation pH was higher with an increase in CCP content. The sample with highest CCP content (128%) exhibited gelation at very high pH (6.3), which could be due to alkali-induced CN micellar disruption. The G' values at pH 4.6 were similar in gels with CCP levels up to 116%; at higher CCP levels, the G' values at pH 4.6 greatly decreased. Loss tangent values at pH 5.1 were similar in all samples except in gels with a CCP level of 128%. For dialyzed milk, the whey separation levels were similar in gels made from milk with up to 107% CCP but increased at higher CCP levels. Microstructure of yogurt gels made from milk with 100 to 107% CCP was similar but very large clusters were observed in gels made from milk with higher CCP levels. By dialyzing heated milk against pasteurized milk, we may have retained some heat-induced Ca phosphate on micelles that normally dissolves on cooling because, during dialysis, pasteurized milk provided soluble Ca ions to the heated milk system. Yogurt texture was significantly affected by increasing the casein-bound Ca (and total Ca) content of milk as well as by the alkalization procedure involved in that approach.