The effect of hot air, vacuum and microwave drying on drying characteristics, rehydration capacity, color, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of Kumquat (Citrus japonica)


ÖZCAN SİNİR G., ÖZKAN KARABACAK A., TAMER C. E. , ÇOPUR Ö. U.

FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, vol.39, no.2, pp.475-484, 2019 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1590/fst.34417
  • Journal Name: FOOD SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded, Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.475-484
  • Keywords: kumquat, drying methods, drying characteristics, rehydration, antioxidant capacity, RADICAL-SCAVENGING ACTIVITY, VITAMIN-C, MOISTURE DIFFUSIVITY, BETA-CAROTENE, KINETICS, TEMPERATURE, MICROSTRUCTURE, BEHAVIOR, TEXTURE, IMPACT

Abstract

Sliced kumquats were dried by using three different drying methods, microwave (375 W), hot air (70 and 80 degrees C), and vacuum (70 and 80 degrees C with 100 and 300 mbar) to determine drying characteristics, antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content and color. All color parameters (L, a, b, C-ab, Delta E and h degrees) changed depending on the drying methods. Page and Modified Page models are the best fitted drying methods with the highest value of R-2 (0.9994) and the lowest values of RMSE (0.000635-0.000735) and chi(2) (0.000010-0.000013) compared to other models. Effective moisture diffusivity values for dried kumquats ranged from 1.54 x 10(-8) to 8.24 x 10(-8) in vacuum drying at 70 degrees C-300 mbar and microwave drying at 375 W, respectively. In comparison to the fresh sample, the dried samples showed an increase in both total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The total phenolic content (3095.71 +/- 101.41 mg GA/100g d.w) and antioxidant activity (10.51 +/- 0.19 mu mol TE/g d.w) with DPPH assay showed the highest levels for the vacuum drying at 70 degrees C-100 mbar method. Microwave dried samples had the highest antioxidant activity with CUPRAC assay as (17.58 +/- 0.63 mu mol TE/g d.w.). This study indicated that microwave drying and vacuum drying at 70 degrees C-100 mbar were able to yield high-quality kumquat slices.