Encapsulation of ellagic acid from pomegranate peels in microalgae optimized by response surface methodology and an investigation of its controlled released under simulated gastrointestinal studies

Yagmur N., Sahin S.

JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE, vol.85, no.4, pp.998-1006, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 85 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/1750-3841.15085
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Analytical Abstracts, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Computer & Applied Sciences, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.998-1006
  • Keywords: controlled release, ellagic acid microencapsulation, optimization, pomegranate peel extract, Spirulina microalgae, ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY, PHENOLIC-COMPOUNDS, DIGESTION, L., MICROENCAPSULATION, BIOAVAILABILITY, POLYPHENOLS, FORMULATION, POMACE
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring bioactive phenolic compound largely found in pomegranate, exhibits significant health benefits due to its antioxidant, antimutagenic, and even anticancerogenic properties. The present work aimed to microencapsulate EA extracted from pomegranate peels. To improve the stability of EA, microencapsulation was applied with Spirulina as a coating material. For this purpose, ethanolic extracts obtained from pomegranate peels were used for microencapsulation. Response surface methodology combined with a three-level, three-variable Box-Behnken design (BBD) was applied to obtain optimum microencapsulation. The microparticles obtained under the optimized encapsulation conditions were further characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The results confirmed the encapsulation of EA in Spirulina cells. Then, the optimum microparticles were used in an in vitro release study. The results of the in vitro digestion with simulated gastrointestinal fluids could help to determine the content and biological activity of EA. In this study, the effect of encapsulation on the release properties of EA during simulated gastrointestinal digestion was also evaluated. HPLC-DAD analysis and the Folin-Ciocalteu and ABTS methods were helpful for characterization of EA in the simulated fluids. The release profile of EA indicated that in simulated intestinal fluid, the release was faster than that in gastric fluid.