PAHs, PCBs and OCPs in olive oil during the fruit ripening period of olive fruits


Sakin A. E. , MERT C. , TAŞDEMİR Y.

ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s10653-022-01297-7
  • Title of Journal : ENVIRONMENTAL GEOCHEMISTRY AND HEALTH
  • Keywords: Persistent organic pollutants, Semi-volatile organic compounds, Edible oil, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, POLLUTION SOURCE IDENTIFICATION, ORGANOCHLORINE PESTICIDES, POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS, SOURCE APPORTIONMENT, SEASONAL-VARIATIONS, RISK-ASSESSMENT, URBAN, CONTAMINATION, SITES

Abstract

Because of their possible carcinogenic effects, it is crucial to determine levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in olive oils. However, there are a few studies about these pollutants' levels in olive oils and no other studies reported PAHs, PCBs and OCPs at the same time and during the ripening period of olives in olive oils. A modified clean-up technique was successfully applied for eliminating lipidic components. Additionally, this study does not just report the concentrations of these pollutants but also inspects the sources depending on the actual sampling site. Also, PCBs and OCPs carcinogenic risks in olive oil were reported for the first time in the literature. This study aims to present levels, carcinogenic risks, sources and concentration changes during the ripening period of these pollutants in olive oil. For this purpose, fruit samples for oil extraction were collected between the beginning of the fruit ripening and harvest period. Obtained olive oils from the fruits were extracted and cleaned up using the QuEChERS method. GC-MS and GC-ECD were used for the quantitative analysis of the targeted pollutants. The average concentrations for Sigma(16)pAHs, Sigma(37)PCBs and Sigma(10)OCPs were 222.48 +/- 133.76 mu g/kg, 58.26 +/- 21.64 mu g/kg and 25.48 +19.55 mu g/kg, respectively. During the harvest period, the concentrations were in a decreasing trend. Calculated carcinogenic risks were above acceptable limits for all groups and traffic, wood-coal burning, atmospheric transport and previous uses were the main sources. Results of the source determination indicated that some possible sources could be prevented with regulations and precautions.