JOURNAL OF PHYTOPATHOLOGY, vol.154, no.9, pp.534-541, 2006 (SCI-Expanded)
The efficacy of low-toxicity chemicals as possible alternatives to synthetic fungicides for the control of Uromyces appendiculatus and Puccinia triticina was evaluated. A preliminary selection of food additives was performed through in vitro and in vivo preliminary screenings. The ED50 and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values showed that most of the food additives used in this study were more toxic to U. appendiculatus than to P. triticina. Acetic acid, potassium carbonate, sodium carbonate and sodium molybdate were the food additives that were more toxic to the urediniospores of P. triticina. Selected compounds and concentrations were tested on bean and wheat plants grown in pots under controlled conditions. Acetic acid, ammonium bicarbonate, potassium acetate, potassium benzoate, potassium bicarbonate, potassium carbonate, sodium acetate and sodium citrate at 0.03, 0.09, 0.03, 0.006, 0.012, 0.012, 0.03 and 0.03 M, respectively, significantly reduced the disease severity of U. appendiculatus without causing any injury to bean leaves. Ammonium bicarbonate, potassium bicarbonate, sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate at 0.12, 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 M, respectively, were the most effective in reducing the disease severity caused by P. triticina without causing any injury to wheat leaves.