Objective. In this study, the patients who developed asymptomatic candiduria in the intensive care unit were followed prospectively for the persistence of candiduria after the replacement of indwelling urethral catheter and the correlation between persistence and virulence factors (proteinase enzyme activity and epithelial adhesion) was assessed. Design. Prospective study. Setting. Intensive care unit and mycology laboratory at a university hospital. Patients. Thirty-four patients with asymptomatic candiduria were included in the study. Results. Candiduria persisted in 19 of 34 patients(56%; group 1) and cleared in 15 of 34 patients(44%; group 2) after urinary catheters were changed. When the virulence factors (epithelial adhesion and proteinase activity) and distribution of Candida spp. were compared between two groups, no statistically significant correlation was found. Conclusion. The host immune response might be more important than virulence factors of Candida spp. for persistence of candiduria.