Introduction: The noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) play a role in biological processes of various cancers including gliomas. The majority of these transcripts are uniquely expressed in differentiated tissues or specific glioma types. Pediatric oligodendroglioma (POG) is a rare subtype of diffuse glioma and accounts for <1% of pediatric brain tumors. Because histologically POG resembles adult OG, the same treatment is applied as adults. However, the significance in predicting outcomes in POG patients is unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic significance of expression -profiles of microRNA (miRNA) and long noncoding RNA -(LncRNA) in POGs. Methods: We investigated the levels of 13 known miRNAs and 6 LncRNAs in tumor samples from 9 patients with primary POG by using RT-PCR and analyzed their association with outcomes. Results: The expression levels of miR-21, miR-106a, miR-10b, and LncRNA NEAT1 were higher, and the expression level of miR-143 was lower in POG tissues compared with normal brain tissues (p = 0.006, p = 0.032, p = 0.034, p = 0.002, and p = 0.001, respectively). High levels of NEAT1 and low expression of miR-143 were associated with decreased probability of short disease-free survival (p = 0.018 and p = 0.022, respectively). Discussion: NEAT1 and miR-143 levels could serve as reciprocal prognostic predictors of disease progression in patients with POG. New treatment models to regulate the expression levels of NEAT1 and miR-143 will bring a new approach to the therapy of POG.