The author aims to examine the perceptions and practices of the state and different Islamist groups with regard to religious education in Egypt from the 1970s onwards. The rise of Islamism in Egypt has created strife between the ruling elites and dissident Islamist groups, as both sides seek to capture the religious discourse and control religious socialization through mass education. This strife has resulted in the emergence of alternative Islamic educational areas such as private Islamic schools and Al-Azhar schools. The Mubarak government in Egypt seeks to institutionalize a discourse in state religious education. The reactions of moderate and radical Islamist groups to such efforts have produced important, unintended consequences that may be seen to have undermined the legitimacy of the regime.