Effect of Water-Reducing Admixtures Having Hybrid Silicon Air-Entraining Surfactants on Some Properties of Concrete Mixtures

Emin A., Özen S., Mardani A., Ünlü A., Kaptı T.

JOURNAL OF MATERIALS IN CIVIL ENGINEERING, vol.34, no.9, pp.1-15, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1061/(asce)mt.1943-5533.0004347
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aerospace Database, Applied Science & Technology Source, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), Communication Abstracts, Compendex, Computer & Applied Sciences, ICONDA Bibliographic, INSPEC, Metadex, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.1-15
  • Keywords: Air entraining surfactant (AES), Ethylene, propylene oxide, Water reducing admixture, Permeability, Freezing thawing, FREEZE-THAW RESISTANCE, POLYCARBOXYLATE SUPERPLASTICIZERS, TRANSPORT-PROPERTIES, CEMENT, PERFORMANCE, COMPATIBILITY, HYDRATION, BEHAVIOR, MORTAR, AGENT
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


In order to improve the fresh properties and freeze-thaw resistance of cementitious systems, water-reducing and air-entraining admixtures are actively used in concrete mixtures. Generally, these mentioned admixtures are added to concrete mixtures as two separate admixtures. In this case, when the properties/compositions of one of the admixtures change, compatibility problems of admixtures may occur with each other or with the cement, and the fresh/hardened properties of the concrete may be adversely affected. In this study, a modified water-reducing admixture with both fluidity and air-entraining properties was produced. The utilization effect of high-range water-reducing admixtures (HRWR) having different ethylene oxide/propylene oxide (EO/PO)–based air-entraining surfactants (AES) on some properties of concrete mixtures was investigated. For this purpose, firstly, hybrid silicone AESs with a silicon content of 20%, 33%, and 38.5% were supplied. Then, HRWRs containing seven different AES were produced by using substitution and synthesis methods. In HRWRs produced by the substitution method, 3 and 5 wt. % of HRWR were substituted with EO/PO-based hybrid silicon AES. In the other method, EO/PO-based hybrid silicon air-entraining macromonomers were bonded to the HRWR at ratios of 1, 3, and 5 wt. % during its synthesis process. Replacing HRWR with hybrid silicone AESs increased admixture demand to provide the target slump value in concrete mixtures. Utilization of AESs containing 20% and 33% silicon in HRWR by the substitution method positively affected the permeability and compressive strength of concrete mixtures, while the rise of this ratio to 38.5% by using the synthesis method did not affect them significantly. The presence of surfactant with 20% silicon in 3% and 5% of the admixture and with 33% silicon in 5% of the admixture positively affected frost resistance of concrete mixtures. However, the use of surfactants with 33% silicon content in 3% of the admixture and 38.5% silicon in 1%, 3%, and 5% of the admixture showed a negative effect on the frost resistance of the mixtures.