A Rare Cause of Epilepsy: Ulegyria Revisited in a Series of 10 Patients


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Demir A. , Eser P. , Bekar A. , Hakyemez B. , Bora I.

CLINICAL EEG AND NEUROSCIENCE, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/15500594211043308
  • Title of Journal : CLINICAL EEG AND NEUROSCIENCE
  • Keywords: epilepsy, hypoxic-ischemic brain injury, epilepsy surgery, ulegyria, HYPOXIC-ISCHEMIC ENCEPHALOPATHY, I-123 IODOAMPHETAMINE, IMAGING FINDINGS, BRAIN

Abstract

Introduction. Ulegyria results from perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in term infants. The specific mushroom-shaped configuration of ulegyria results from small atrophic circumvolutions at the bottom of a sulcus underlying an intact gyral apex. Clinically, ulegyria is generally associated with epilepsy. Here, we aimed to delineate the characteristics of patients with ulegyria and the epileptic seizures they experience. Material and methods. Medical records including radiology and pathology reports, video-electroencephalographic (EEG) analysis, operative notes, hospital progress and outpatient clinic notes were reviewed retrospectively in a total of 10 ulegyria patients. Results. Patients ages ranged between 24 and 58 years (mean, 32 +/- 9.8 years). Past medical history was confirmed for neonatal asphyxia in 2 (20%). Neurological examination was remarkable for spastic hemiparesis in 1 (10%) patient with perisylvian ulegyria and for visual field deficits in 2 patients (20%) with occipital ulegyria. Ulegyria most commonly involved the temporoparietal region (n = 5, 50%) followed by the perisylvian area (n = 2, 20%). Except the one with bilateral perisylvian ulegyria, all patients had unilateral lesions (n = 9, 90%). Hippocampal sclerosis accompanied ulegyria in 2 patients (20%). All patients experienced epileptic seizures. Mean age at seizure onset was 8.8 +/- 5.4 years (range, 2-20 years). Interictal scalp EEG and EEG-video monitoring records demonstrated temporoparietal and frontotemporal activities in 5 (50%) and 2 (20%) patients, respectively. The seizures were successfully controlled by antiepileptic medication in 8 patients (n = 8, 80%). The remaining 2 patients (%20) with concomitant hippocampal sclerosis required microsurgical resection of the seizure foci due to medically resistant seizures. Discussion. Ulegyria is easily recognized with its unique magnetic resonance imaging characteristics and clinical presentation in the majority of cases. It is highly associated with either medically resistant or medically controllable epileptic seizures. The treatment strategy depends on the age at onset and extends of the lesion that has a significant impact on the severity of the clinical picture.