Deficit irrigation of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in a sub-humid climate

Demir A., Goksoy A., Buyukcangaz H. , Turan Z., Koksal E.

IRRIGATION SCIENCE, vol.24, no.4, pp.279-289, 2006 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 24 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2006
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00271-006-0028-x
  • Title of Journal : IRRIGATION SCIENCE
  • Page Numbers: pp.279-289


The response of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) to 14 irrigation treatments in a sub-humid environment (Bursa, Turkey) was studied in the field for two seasons. A rainfed (non-irrigated) treatment as the control and 13 irrigation treatments with full and 12 different deficit irrigations were applied to the hybrid Sanbro (Novartis Seed Company) planted on clay soil, at three critical development stages: heading (H), flowering (F) and milk ripening (M). The yield increased with irrigation water amount, and the highest seed yield (3.95 t ha(-1)) and oil yield (1.78 t ha(-1)) were obtained from the HFM treatment (full irrigation at three stages); 82.9 and 85.4% increases, respectively, compared to the control. Evapotranspiration (ET) increased with increased amounts of irrigation water supplied. The highest seasonal ET (average of 652 mm) was estimated at the HFM treatment. Additionally, yield response factor (k (y)) was separately calculated for each, two and total growth stages, and k (y) was found to be 0.8382, 0.9159 (the highest value) and 0.7708 (the lowest value) for the total growing season, heading, and flowering-milk ripening combination stages, respectively. It is concluded that HFM irrigation is the best choice for maximum yield under the local conditions, but these irrigation schemes must be re-considered in areas where water resources are more limited. In the case of more restricted irrigation, the limitation of irrigation water at the flowering period should be avoided; as the highest water use efficiency (WUE) (7.80 kg ha(-1) mm(-1)) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) (10.19 kg ha(-1) mm(-1)) were obtained from the F treatment.