We prospectively investigated the complications associated with intraparenchymal intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring using the Camino intracranial pressure device. A fiberoptic ICP monitoring transducer was implanted in 631 patients. About half of the patients (n = 303) also received an external ventricular drainage set (EVDS). The durations (mean +/- SD) of ICP monitoring in patients without and with an EVDS were 6.5 +/- 4.4 and 7.3 +/- 5.1 days, respectively. Infection occurred in 6 patients with only an ICP transducer (6/328, 1.8%) and 24 patients with an EVDS also (24/303, 7.9%). The duration of monitoring had no effect on infection, whereas the use of an EVDS for more than 9 days increased infection risk by 5.11 times. Other complications included transducer disconnection (2.37%), epidural hematoma (0.47%), contusion (0.47%), defective probe (0.31%), broken transducer (0.31%), dislocation of the fixation screw (0.15%), and intraparenchymal hematoma (0.15%). In conclusion, intraparenchymal ICP monitoring systems can be safely used in patients who either have, or are at risk of developing, increased ICP. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.