Scale Development and Initial Tests of the Multidimensional Complex Adaptive Leadership Scale for School Principals: An Exploratory Mixed Method Study

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Özen H., Turan S.

European Journal of Education Studies, vol.3, no.12, pp.37-74, 2017 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 3 Issue: 12
  • Publication Date: 2017
  • Doi Number: 10.5281/zenodo.1098030
  • Title of Journal : European Journal of Education Studies
  • Page Numbers: pp.37-74


This study was designed to develop the scale of the Complex Adaptive Leadership for School Principals (CAL-SP) and examine its psychometric properties. This was an exploratory mixed method research design (ES-MMD). Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used to develop and assess psychometric properties of the questionnaire. This study introduced the construct of CAL-SP, which comprised three dimensions: enabling leadership (EL), managerial leadership (ML) and adaptive leadership (AL). The scale showed internal consistency, reliability, construct validity and nomological validity explaining that the instrument had a good structure and reliability. Directions for future research and managerial implications of the new construct are discussed.