The presence of anomalous muscle bundles may produce a pressure gradient between the inflow and outflow portions of the right ventricle, thus resulting in double-chambered right ventricle bearing troublesome clinically in its diagnosis. The aim of the present study was to review the diagnostic criteria. Fifty-two patients with a double-chambered right ventricle were seen during an and year period. They ranged in age at the catheterization from 4 months to 17 years (mean 7.5 +/- 4.4 years). Diagnosis was confirmed in 51 patients at cardiac catheterization and in other one on operation. The majority of the patients had associated cardiac anomalies: there were 33 ventricular septal defect (63%), 21 pulmonary valve stenosis (40%), nine atrial septal defect (17%), and four double-outlet right ventricle. The electrocardiograms revealed upright T waves alone in right precordial leads suggesting right ventricular hypertrophy in 33% of the patients. At cardiac catheterization, there was a pressure gradient of 20-160 mmHg between the right ventricular inflow and outflow portions. Forty patients have had surgery and four have undergone balloon pulmonary valvuloplasty. Surgical treatment was planned for two patients and other six had no indication for treatment.