SUCCESSFUL TREATMENT OF NEUROASPERGILLOSIS IN A PATIENT WITH ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA: ROLE OF SURGERY, SYSTEMIC ANTIFUNGAL THERAPY AND INTRACAVITARY THERAPY


Ozcelik T., ÖZKALEMKAŞ F. , Kocael H., Altundal Y., ENER B. , ALİ R. , ...More

MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI, vol.43, no.3, pp.499-506, 2009 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 43 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2009
  • Title of Journal : MIKROBIYOLOJI BULTENI
  • Page Numbers: pp.499-506

Abstract

Cerebral aspergillosis is a rare condition that generally exhibits a poor response to conventional antifungal drugs. We report here a case of cerebral aspergillosis in a 34-years-old man with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia who was successfully treated with a combination of aggressive neurosurgery, intracavitary instillation of amphotericin B and voriconazole. We aimed to emphazise the roles of surgery, intracavitary therapy and antifungal therapy in the management of neuroaspergillosis. Under amphotericin-B therapy, the patient developed dysarthria and paralysis of the right side of his body. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a lesion in the left parieto-occipital region, measuring 7 cm in the greatest dimension. Diagnostic surgery was interrupted due to abundant bleeding. The culture of the aspirate from the lesion yielded Aspergillus flavus. The therapy was switched to voriconazole and caspofungin combination. Due to disease progression during combination therapy, the patient had a second surgical resection resulting in a 75% reduction in lesion size. Following surgical intervention, intracavitary instillation of amphotericin B (0.3 mg/day for 15 days) was performed alongside with combination therapy (voriconazole and caspofungin). Caspofungin was stopped after 42 days, whereas the patient was continued on voriconazole for a total of 100 days. At this point, his brain lesion resolved almost completely. However, leukemia relapsed. The patient died during his treatment course because of neutropenic typhilitis occurring in the aplastic phase. It is stated that in patients with neuroaspergillosis radical neurosurgery leads to better outcomes if performed at an earlier stage. Antifungal treatment of cerebral aspergillosis requires that the drug must cross the blood brain barrier. Voriconazole has the ability to cross the blood brain barrier. The therapy should be prolonged beyond the resolution of all lesions and until reversal of the underlying predisposition. We conclude that the use of neurosurgery and voriconazole together appears to be a reliable and effective treatment modality in patients with cerebral aspergillosis.