© 2022 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.This study seeks to answer why Turkey could not reach its defense industry targets despite the efforts between 1919-1950. Defense industry was significant for the government's foreign policies and efficiency. The problems in defense industrial infrastructure and absence of a private industrial sector were significant reasons for falling of the empire. During Turkish Independence War and in early Republican Era, lack of national defense industry remained as a crucial problem. Thus the government considered the establishment of indigenous defense industry as a strategic target and invested limited resources. Despite, by the end of the World War II, Turkish Republic still failed to fulfil military requirements. This failure led Turkey to join NATO due to security requirements against USSR. It led to dependency on Western military assistance. Turkey's failure was due to lack of corporate planning, inadequate investment financing, and the difference between current human resources and strategic target requirements.