Optik, vol.273, 2023 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2022 Elsevier GmbHIn this study, the general projective Riccati equations and the enhanced Kudryashov's methods are presented for the optical solitons of the perturbation Fokas–Lenells (FL) equation. For this aim, the perturbation Fokas–Lenells equation is converted to a nonlinear ordinary differential equation via wave transformations. Then, the balance number is calculated by the homogeneous balance method. Then, the used methods are applied to the given model. Finally, three-dimensional, contour, and two-dimensional figures of the results are presented. According to the obtained results, both methods are effective and powerful. The obtained results are significant in mathematical physics, soliton theory, and many other areas.