One hour of ischemia significantly increased protein S100B release from rat brain slices without altering lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Reoxygenation of the ischemic slices, however, increased the levels of these biochemical markers in the medium. Although removal of extracellular Ca+2 ions from the medium did not alter the basal lactate dehydrogenase leakage from cortical slices, an excessive increase in basal protein S100B release was seen under this condition. Ischemia and/or reoxygenation induced enhancements in these markers were attenuated by removal of Ca+2 ions from the medium. Ischemia significantly increased glutamate release, but neither ischernia nor reoxygenation induced rises in protein S100B and lactate dehydrogenase levels were altered by glutamate receptor antagonists. Rising the glutamate levels in the medium by each ouabain or exogenous glutamate, moreover, failed in exerting an ischernia like effect on protein S100B and LDH outputs. In contrast, exogenous glutamate added into the medium protected the slices against reoxygenation induced increments in protein S100B and lactate dehydrogenase levels.