Epidural fibrosis, which may cause persistent back and leg pain, may develop after laminectomy. Several materials have been used in attempts to minimize epidural fibrosis, with varying results. We evaluated the efficacy of an absorbable cellulose adhesion barrier in preventing epidural fibrosis. In 25 New Zealand white rabbits, laminectomies were performed at L3 and L5 vertebrae. The dura mater was covered by the adhesion barrier (Interceed, TC7, Johnson & Johnson, USA) at L3 laminectomy site (group 1), with L5 laminectomy site serving as an internal control (group 2) in each animal. There was no neurological deficit in any of the animals during the postoperative period. Animals were sacrificed at postoperative day 28. The lumbar spine was removed en bloc and placed in neutral, buffered formalin for 72 h. The specimens were then decalcified and embedded in paraffin. Permanent sections of 5 to 7 mu m were stained with hematoxylin and eosin and Masson trichrome dye. Epidural fibrosis was evaluated in a double-blinded manner. The extent of epidural fibrosis was graded as 0, no reaction seen; 1, mild reaction; 2, moderate reaction; 3, extensive reaction, and 4, severe reaction. The histological findings of each group were compared. For the statistical analysis, Wilcoxon signed rank test was used. In group 1, the fibrotic tissue formation was minimal in 19 and moderate in 6 laminectomy sites. In group 2, the fibrotic tissue formation was determined as being extensive in 17 and moderate in 8 laminectomy sites. Statistical analysis showed significant decrease in epidural fibrosis in group 1 (P < 0.05). This study showed that Interceed, which is commercially available in the market, especially for abdominal and gynecological surgeries, could be used to prevent epidural fibrosis.