Selected characters in related taxa of Linum sect. Syllinum are compared using morphometric data and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). As a result, Linum kaynakiae Yilmaz sp. nov. is described from southwest Anatolia, Turkey. It is closely related to L. tauricum subsp. bosphori, L. boisseri and L. cariense, but differs by having larger linear-oblanceolte rosette leaves and larger lanceolate sepals. Its relationship with closely related taxa is discussed. Diagnostic characters, description and taxonomic remarks and an identification key to the sect. Syllinum taxa - with persistent basal rosettes of leaves at anthesis - is provided.