Determination of Optimum Building Envelope Parameters of a Room concerning Window-to-Wall Ratio, Orientation, Insulation Thickness and Window Type

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BUILDINGS, vol.12, no.3, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/buildings12030383
  • Journal Name: BUILDINGS
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Keywords: insulation thickness, energy efficiency, windows, CLIMATE ZONES, EXTERNAL WALLS, PERFORMANCE, CONSUMPTION, RESPECT, DESIGN, IMPACT, FUELS
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


The building envelope includes all materials (glazing, external walls, doors, etc.) that separate the conditioned space from the outside environment. Building envelope characteristics significantly influence the energy consumption of buildings. In this study, research was carried out to find optimum building envelope design parameters, such as insulation thickness, orientation, glazing type, and the window-to-wall ratio of a room, using actual climatic data of two cities with different characteristics according to the Koppen climatic classification. The insulation thickness and the window type that minimizes the net present worth of the building facade over 20 years of a lifetime gave the optimum values. In addition, the effect of the various parameters, such as the infiltration rate through the envelope, room set-point temperature, and the fuel type, on the net present cost was also analyzed. It was found that appropriate selection of windows, orientation, and insulation thickness would lead to a significant reduction in the annual energy consumption. Despite having the lowest initial investment cost, the room with single glazed windows had the highest energy requirement and the net present cost. The building facade with double glazed windows, oriented towards the south-west, yielded the minimum net present cost in both locations. Results showed that the optimum external wall thickness is 9 cm in Hakkari (Dsa-Continental Climate) and 6 cm in Istanbul (Csa-Mild Climate).