Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and the most lethal form of primary malignant tumors in the central nervous system. There is an increasing need for the development of more efficient therapeutic approaches for the treatment of these patients. One of the most attractive cancer therapy methods to date is the induction of tumor cell death by certain phytochemicals. Interestingly, bioactive compounds have been shown to alter micro RNA (miRNA) expression involved in several biological processes at the posttranscriptional level. The present study aimed to evaluate whether Olea europaea leaf extract (OLE) has an anticancer effect and modulates miRNA expression in GBM.