Precancerous lesions of oral mucosa, known as premalignant disorders, have greater malignant transform risk concerning dysplastic changes, carcinoma in situ or oral cancers. Oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, oral erythroplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, dyskeratosis congenita and epidermolysis bullosa are the most common precancerous lesions in varying frequency in children. Although the etiological factors of these lesions are not entirely understood; the main factors are smoking, alcohol consumption or addictive habits such as areca nut chewing. Moreover; these harmful habits are increasing dramatically in children in early ages and it is challenging regarding public health. Despite the oral cancers or precancerous lesions are rarely seen in childhood, early diagnosis and treatment of these lesions are critical regarding differences in treatment procedures in children, elimination of harmful habits that may cause these lesions and providing regular follow-ups. Therefore, it is thought that specialist in different disciplines which involved pediatric patients need to be informed and raised awareness. The aim of this review is to summarize the clinical features, pathogenesis, etiological factors, current treatment approaches and preventive procedures of the most common oral precancerous lesions in pediatric patients.