The pollution of the environment caused by dyes and heavy metals emitted by industries has become a worldwide problem. The development of efficient, environmentally acceptable, and cost-effective methods of wastewater treatment containing dyes and heavy metals is critical. Biologically based techniques for treating effluents are fascinating since they provide several benefits over standard treatment methods. This review assesses the most recent developments in the use of biological based techniques to remove dyes and heavy metals from wastewater. The remediation of dyes and heavy metals by diverse microorganisms such as algae, bacteria, fungi and enzymes are depicted in detail. Ongoing biological method's advances, scientific prospects, problems, and the future prognosis are all highlighted. This review is useful for gaining a better integrated view of biological based wastewater treatment and for speeding future research on the function of biological methods in water purification applications.