CRISPR-Based Genome Editing Tools: Insights into Technological Breakthroughs and Future Challenges


Mushtaq M., Ahmad Dar A., Skalicky M., Tyagi A., Bhagat N., Basu U., ...More

GENES, vol.12, no.6, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 12 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/genes12060797
  • Journal Name: GENES
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: genome editing, CRISPR, base editing, prime editing, DNA-free genome editing, crop improvement, REGULATORS BABY-BOOM, DOUBLE-STRAND BREAKS, CROP IMPROVEMENT, HIGHLY EFFICIENT, DIRECTED MUTAGENESIS, TARGETED MUTAGENESIS, DISEASE RESISTANCE, GENE DELIVERY, DNA REPLICONS, HUMAN-CELLS
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: No

Abstract

Genome-editing (GE) is having a tremendous influence around the globe in the life science community. Among its versatile uses, the desired modifications of genes, and more importantly the transgene (DNA)-free approach to develop genetically modified organism (GMO), are of special interest. The recent and rapid developments in genome-editing technology have given rise to hopes to achieve global food security in a sustainable manner. We here discuss recent developments in CRISPR-based genome-editing tools for crop improvement concerning adaptation, opportunities, and challenges. Some of the notable advances highlighted here include the development of transgene (DNA)-free genome plants, the availability of compatible nucleases, and the development of safe and effective CRISPR delivery vehicles for plant genome editing, multi-gene targeting and complex genome editing, base editing and prime editing to achieve more complex genetic engineering. Additionally, new avenues that facilitate fine-tuning plant gene regulation have also been addressed. In spite of the tremendous potential of CRISPR and other gene editing tools, major challenges remain. Some of the challenges are related to the practical advances required for the efficient delivery of CRISPR reagents and for precision genome editing, while others come from government policies and public acceptance. This review will therefore be helpful to gain insights into technological advances, its applications, and future challenges for crop improvement.