Recent Advances in Genomic Selection of Beef Cattle


Şentürk N., Taşkın D., Günhan M. E., Ardıçlı S.

4th International Eurasian Conference on Science, Engineering and Technology (EurasianSciEnTech 2022), Ankara, Turkey, 14 - 16 December 2022, vol.4, pp.104

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • Volume: 4
  • City: Ankara
  • Country: Turkey
  • Page Numbers: pp.104
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Until the late 20th century, breeding in farm animals was performed by traditional selection methods using phenotypic data.

In this context, a certain level of genetic progress has been achieved, especially with the more efficient evaluation of pedigree

records and the development of more comprehensive statistical methods. Nevertheless, the development of molecular genetic

methods and their increasing use in livestock breeding have increased the accuracy of selection programs, resulting in a high

level of genetic progress. The primary objective in beef cattle breeding is to obtain a high beef yield. However, beef quality

has become increasingly important in recent years. This shows once again the need to focus on the question of high beef

quantity or higher beef quality. Because the molecular genetic basis for answering this question seems to be quite complex.

This complexity clearly demonstrates that selection programs can create flexibility in terms of yield vs quality and allow the

application of purposeful selection models and that intensive selection on meat quality can lead to precise regressions in

fattening performance, or vice versa. Moreover, most of the carcass characteristics are detectable after slaughter. Therefore,

the data to be obtained as a result of an effective genetic evaluation is indispensable. In recent years, many genes related to

growth rate, carcass weight, lean meat, marbling, and texture have been specifically identified. However, as with many other

economically important quantitative traits, carcass and meat quality traits are controlled by numerous genes with minor

effects. Therefore, marker-assisted selection (MAS) was able to achieve a limited level of progress. Data from genome-wide

association studies (GWAS) and newly-developed SNP chip technologies are seen as a very effective option to select animals

with superior characteristics. In this study, current developments in GWAS, challenges, and possible solutions for genomic

selection in beef cattle will be discussed.