Determination of pollution status of Nilufer river by water and bottom sediment analysis


WATER SUPPLY, vol.23, no.1, pp.343-355, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.2166/ws.2023.003
  • Journal Name: WATER SUPPLY
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Compendex, EMBASE, Environment Index, Geobase, ICONDA Bibliographic, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Page Numbers: pp.343-355
  • Keywords: heavy metal, irrigation water quality, Nilufer river, physicochemical parameter, sediment analysis, HEAVY-METAL CONTAMINATION, QUALITY, MOBILITY, STREAM, INDEX, SOIL
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


This study aims to evaluate the Nilufer river in terms of water quality standards. Bottom sediment and water samples were taken from six different locations. The analysis of the physicochemical parameters of water compared with FAO for irrigation water quality standards. In addition, the SAR (sodium adsorption ratio), % Na, MAR (magnesium adsorption ratio), RSC (residual sodium carbonate), KR (Kelley's ratio) and % PI (permeability index) parameters were evaluated in water samples. The bottom sediment pollution situation was evaluated in terms of pollution index such as TEC (threshold effect concentration) and PEC (probable effect concentration). According to the results of the study, the irrigation water classes of the samples were determined as C2S1 and C3S1. Especially, sample sites S4, S5 and S6 were not suitable for irrigation in terms of RSC, KR. The bottom sediment exceeded the TEC and PEC limit values in terms of Zn, Cu, Cr and Ni contents. This may cause adverse effects on the majority of sediment-dwelling organisms.The use of alternative water sources should be preferred. The river can be used for irrigation with precaution but extensive treatment is required before use for irrigation purposes to prevent adverse public health effects.