Are we really what we eat? Molecular genetic aspects


Ardıçlı S.

3rd Edition of International Conference on Nutrition Research, Paris, France, 12 - 13 September 2022, vol.3, no.2, pp.8

  • Publication Type: Conference Paper / Summary Text
  • Volume: 3
  • City: Paris
  • Country: France
  • Page Numbers: pp.8
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes

Abstract

Recently, it is very well known that good nutrition is essential for a healthy life. In this context, new nutritional supplements and extracts from different sources are introduced to the market. Scientific studies supported by in vitro and in vivo experimental designs are carried out on these products. But one important question is whether molecular genetic dynamics are altered by nutritional properties or vice versa. Understanding the relationship between nutrition and genetics can be achieved through two basic interactions. On one hand, nutrients may affect DNA stability and repair, important biological processes, such as apoptosis, and the expression levels of many genes. On the other hand, individual genotypes may alter metabolic pathways and the bioactivity of regulatory molecules through genetic variation components, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms and mutations. Genotype differences can also directly change the reflection of the effects of nutrients and metabolic mediators on the phenotype. Newly-identified epigenetic modifications and non-coding RNAs have made these interactions even more complicated. Controversial results in studies with nutritional supplements also draw attention. One of the main reasons for these results is that many extracts or supplements have multiple ingredients and it is difficult to determine from which molecule the effect observed in the experiments originates. Moreover, molecular changes in nutrients due to reactions in the digestive system make it difficult to verify in vitro results in in vivo models. This presentation focuses on how genotypic background influences nutritional traits, as well as how nutrition can alter genetic dynamics. In this context, current research results on the relationship between nutrition and genetics, the effects of relevant genetic markers, evaluation of nutrigenomic data, limitations in experimental designs, and controversial results will be discussed from molecular genetics and evolutionary perspectives.

Audience Take Away: • Can nutrition affect genetic properties? • New insights into the role of feed supplements regarding molecular aspects. • Evaluations of different diet properties from the epigenetics perspective. • Recent findings from in vivo studies for feed additives that affect genetic properties. • The limitations of in vivo studies on the effects of feed supplements on genetic alterations. • The association of the genetic structure and nutritional dynamics.