ENDOCRINE, vol.33, no.1, pp.101-105, 2008 (SCI-Expanded)
Background Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) improve peripheral insulin sensitivity, but the effect on arterial stiffness is less clear. The aim of the present study was to assess the differential effect of pioglitazone or rosiglitazone on arterial stiffness and plasma levels of adiponectin and leptin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods Thirty-five type 2 diabetic subjects were randomly assigned to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/day; n = 14), rosiglitazone (4 mg/day; n = 11), or placebo (medical nutrition therapy; n = 10) for 12 weeks. Changes in plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, adiponectin, and leptin were evaluated at baseline and after 12 weeks. In parallel, large arterial compliance (C1) and small arterial compliance (C2) were measured at baseline and at the end of treatment period. Results At 12 weeks, the rosiglitazone (P = 0.026) and pioglitazone (P = 0.004) groups had a significant increase from baseline in adiponectin that was not seen in the medical nutrition therapy group. No significant changes in plasma leptin and in C1 and C2 elasticity indexes were observed over the entire study period in any of the treatment groups. Conclusions In this study of patients with type 2 diabetes, treatment with TZDs was associated with a significant improvement in adiponectin levels, although no significant effects were seen on leptin levels and arterial elasticity.