Objective: The hypothesis was tested that preoperative multiple-injection thoracic paravertebral blocks reduce opioid requirements and promote early ambulation after video-assisted thoracic surgery procedures. Design: Prospective, randomized, controlled, blinded study. Setting: Single-university hospital. Participants: Fifty consenting patients undergoing video-assisted thoracic surgery. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive preoperative multiple-injection thoracic paravertebral blocks (PVB group, n = 25) or preoperative multiple subcutaneous saline injections at the same site as in the PVB group (control group, n = 25). Measurements and Main Results: Intraoperative fentanyl consumption was lower in the PVB group (p < 0.01). The time to first analgesic requirement was longer, and pain score at this time was lower in the PVB group (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01, respectively). Postoperative pain scores both at rest and coughing were lower during the first 4 hours in the PVB group than those in the control group (p < 0.01 for 0 hours and p < 0.05 for 1, 2, and 4 hours). Cumulative morphine consumption was significantly less in the PVB group at all time points (p < 0.05 for 12 hours and p < 0.01 for all other time points), but there were no significant differences in sedation scores between the 2 groups. There were no complications because of the blocks. Patient satisfaction with the analgesia was significantly greater (p < 0.05), and first mobilization and hospital discharge were quicker (p < 0.01 and p < 0.05, respectively) in the PVB group. Conclusion: Perioperative multiple-injection thoracic paravertebral blocks with bupivacaine containing epinephrine provided effective pain relief and a significant reduction in opioid requirements. This approach may also contribute to earlier postoperative ambulation after video-assisted thoracic surgery. © 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.