Background: Neuronostatin, a newly identified peptide, is accepted as an anorex- igenic peptide since it suppresses food intake when given intracerebroventricularly. Although the effect mechanisms of neuronostatin have been shown in different studies, there are no reports in the literature describing the mechanisms controlling neuronostatin neurons. In this study, we aimed to determine the presence of the ionotropic glutamate receptor subunits (iGluRs) in neuronostatin neurons in the periventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. Materials and methods: The presence of glutamate receptors in neuronostatin neurons was investigated by dual immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry was performed on 40 mu m thick coronal brain sections with antibodies against AMPA (GluA1-4), kainate (GluK1/2/3, and GluK5), and NMDA (GluN1 and GluN2A) receptor subunits. Results: The results showed that the neuronostatin neurons expressed most of the NMDA and non-NMDA receptor subunits. The neuronostatin neurons in the anterior hypothalamic periventricular nucleus were particularly immunopositive for GluA1, GluA4, GluK1/2/3, GluK5 and GluN1 antibodies. No expression was observed for GluA2, GluA3 and GluN2A antibodies. Conclusions: For the first time in the literature, our study demonstrated that the neuronostatin neurons express glutamate receptor subunits which may form homomeric or heteromeric functional receptor complexes. Taken together, these results suggest that multiple subunits of iGluRs are responsible for glutamate transmission on neuronostatin neurons in the anterior hypothalamic periventricular nucleus.