Oxidative stress was related with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). We aimed to clarify the associations between glutathione S-transferase (GST)M1, GSTT1 and GSTP1-Ile105Val polymorphisms and CTS. One hundred-forty patients with CTS and 97 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Tinel and Phalen signs were noted as positive or negative. Functional and clinical status of patients was evaluated by the Boston Questionnaire. The intensity of hand and/or wrist pain was evaluated on 10 cm visual analog scale (VAS). We applied the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to determine the polymorphisms of the GSTM1 and GSTT1 and the PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism method for detecting the GSTP1-Ile105Val polymorphism. The M1 null genotype was significantly higher in patients with CTS compared to healthy controls, and the M1 null genotype seemed to increase the risk of CTS approximately two-fold (P = 0.011; odds ratio (OR) = 1.98; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.17-3.36). The M1 null, T1 present combined genotype was significantly higher in patients with CTS compared to healthy controls (P = 0.043); however, it seemed not to increase the risk of CTS (P = 0.14; OR = 0.62; 95 % CI 0.33-1.76). We found significantly higher levels of the VAS, Boston Symptom Severity Scale and Phalen sign in patients with the Ile/Val or the Val/Val genotypes compared to those in patients with the Ile/Ile genotype (P = 0.003, 0.004 and 0.044, respectively). We proposed that genes involved in the protection from oxidative stress may influence the susceptibility, clinical and functional status of CTS. The GSTM1 null genotype may be related with the development of CTS, whereas the Val allele of GSTP1-Ile105Val polymorphism may be associated with worse functional and clinical status in CTS.