Introduction: Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted disease and it represents a major public health problem in women of reproductive age. Chlamydia infection during pregnancy poses major health risks for both pregnant women and their fetuses. Most of the individuals who are infected by C. trachomatis are asymptomatic. This treatable disease can be detected easily and more precisely thanks to new developing diagnostic technologies. Application of screening programs in which highly sensitive methods such as nucleic acid amplification tests (NAAT) could be beneficial in asymptomatic populations.