Purpose Binge eating disorder (BED) is characterized by frequent and persistent overeating episodes of binge eating without compensatory behaviors. The aim was to evaluate regional gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities and appetite-regulating hormone levels (NPY and Leptin) in obese subjects either with or without BED compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Twenty-six obese patients with BED, 25 obese patients without BED and 27 healthy subjects as an age-matched control group with neuroimaging and appetite-regulating hormone levels were found eligible for regional GMV abnormalities. A structural magnetic resonance scan and timely blood samples were drawn to assess the appetite-regulating hormone levels. Results The BED obese patients had a greater GMVs of the right medial orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and the left medial OFC compared to the non-BED obese patients. BED patients were characterized by greater GMV of the left medial OFC than HCs. Relative to the HCs, higher serum NPY levels were found in BED obese and non-BED obese groups. Serum leptin levels (pg/mL) had positively correlations with GMV in right medial OFC, left medial OFC, right lateral OFC, and left anterior cingulate cortex. Conclusion Among the reward processing network, which is largely associated with feeding behaviours in individuals with obesity and binge eating disorder, the OFC volumes was correlated with serum leptin concentrations. The results of our study may provide a rationale for exploring the link between regional grey matter volumes and appetite-related hormone levels in people with BED.