Chenille yarns are vulnerable to abrasion because of easy pile loss. In this study different chenille yarns were produced from sirospun and two-folded ring, 100% wool and 50% wool-50% polyester blend yarns of different fiber fineness. A yarn abrasion device was designed in order to measure the abrasion resistance of chenille yarns and the abrasion resistance of knitted fabrics made from these yarns was measured with a Martindale Abrasion tester. In addition, chenille yarns abraded for different numbers of abrasion cycles were analyzed using a computerized image analysis method to evaluate the abrasion behavior. The results were analyzed statistically. According to the results, the use of wool blends and sirospun yarns as pile materials led to an improvement in abrasion resistance. Correlation analyses confirmed strong linear relationships with high values of correlation coefficients (above 0.9) between the mass loss values obtained from abrasion tests and the abrasion coefficients of the chenille yarns obtained from image analysis. © 2006, SAGE Publications. All rights reserved.