Heat Transfer Research, vol.52, no.6, pp.41-57, 2021 (SCI-Expanded)
© 2021 by Begell House, Inc.In this paper, three diff erent 1D models of electric vehicle heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system integrated with the vehicle cabin model for heating process were developed. The numerical results were compared in terms of thermal performance to get the desired thermal conditions inside the vehicle cabin. The results of the hybrid heat pump 1D model including both HVAC components and an additional electrical heater showed bett er thermal performance than the others and it was proposed for the heating process of electric vehicles. At the end of the driving cycle, the average temperature inside the cabin was increased up to about 7oC and 14oC by using the conventional heat pump and innovative heat pump models, respectively, at -5oC ambient temperature and the target temperature cannot be reached. However, under the same conditions, the vehicle cabin could be heated up to about 25oC by using the hybrid heat pump model with a 1-kW electrical heater. In addition, the thermal performance of diff erent heat pump systems can be improved by using electric vehicle thermal management system that allows performing transient simulations for the estimation of the dynamic behavior of system. This study also contributes to decrease of energy usage for HVAC processes that considerably aff ects the mileage of the vehicle and also life cycle of batt eries. These 1D models can be used not only in thermal performance but also can be utilized for thermal comfort conditions of electric vehicles.