Three patients (3 female patients; aged 7, 35, and 61 years) who had recalcitrant idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation were treated with rituximab. The disease was bilateral in 1 patient (4 orbits in total): diffuse in 2 and localized in 2 orbits. It caused optic neuropathy in 1 orbit of each patient. Conventional immunotherapy and tumor debulking surgery were unsuccessful in controlling the disease. After rituximab infusions (375 mg/m(2)/week for 4 weeks), all patients improved symptomatically. Radiologically, the local lesions resolved completely and diffuse lesions partially. Two patients with recurrent inflammation during follow up (78, 58, and 51 months) responded well to immediate, short-term steroid treatments. Short-term rituximab therapy can induce effective remissions in patients with refractory idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation. Early and local lesions may respond better to treatment than diffuse lesions. Nevertheless, inflammatory exacerbations can occur during late follow up.