The effect of weft yarn filament fineness on the surface roughness of fabrics woven from polyester yarns through different fabric constructional properties was investigated. Warp yarn type and count and warp density were the same but weft yarn count, weft yarn filament fineness/numbers, and weft density were different for the fabrics in the experimental sub-groups. An objective assessment for surface roughness measurement of woven fabrics by using a stylus profilometer was made. Experimental results show that yarn filament fineness affected fabric porosity and fabric surface roughness. Fabrics with finer filaments could have a compact structure due to small porosity values between the filaments inside the yarns and between yarns themselves in fabrics. Closeness of yarns in fabric structure decreased differences between high and low peaks on fabric surface, and as a result fabric surface roughness decreased.