This paper focused on the investigation of surface roughness and friction properties of polyester fabrics after abrasion. Experiments were performed on polyester woven fabrics produced from the same yarns in warp and weft directions but with different constructional properties. Surface roughness parameters of amplitude, spacing and hybrid, along with static and kinetic coefficients of friction were measured before and after multiple abrasion cycles. Abrasion was used in order to change the surface characteristic (peak and valley heights and depths and their distributions) in such a way by forming ruptured fiber ends under the control of abrasion. Measurements were made along warp, weft, and diagonal directions. The results showed that roughness parameters decreased numerically as abrasion cycles increased and as ruptured fiber ends formed. Static and kinetic coefficients of friction changed in different manners when measurements were performed along warp and weft directions. It was concluded that initial and resultant peak heights and valley depths together with their distribution on fabric surface govern roughness and friction properties of surfaces in opposite ways. Roughness parameters of skewness and kurtosis could be further considered in the research of friction properties of textile surfaces.