Background Health care workers and hospital cleaning workers are at high risk regarding the development of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD). Objectives To determine the prevalence and risk factors of OCD in hospital cleaning workers. Methods A questionnaire was conducted in 245 cleaning workers in our cross-sectional study. The 236 cleaning workers formed the study group. In workers who were prediagnosed with dermatitis, physical examination was performed in the Dermatology Outpatient Clinic, and when necessary, patch test, skin biopsy, and investigation for total immunoglobulin E were conducted. Patients with definite contact dermatitis were diagnosed as having OCD by using the Mathias criteria. Results The prevalence rate of OCD was 21.6% and was significantly higher in female workers (26.4%) when compared with male workers (11.0%). Female sex; low educational level; cleaning the external surfaces of the medical equipment, monitors, and accessories; and mixing the cleaning products and use them while performing cleaning activities were determined as the independent risk factors for OCD. Conclusions Occupational contact dermatitis was present at a high rate in hospital cleaning workers. The risk factors should be taken into consideration for prevention of OCD and improvement of the health status of hospital cleaning workers.