A Comparison of the Relationship between the Golden Ratio and Anatomical Characteristics of the Supraorbital Foramen in Bare Skulls Belonging to the Byzantine Era and Modern Era


Bakirci S., Kafa I. M. , Coskun İ. , Buyukuysal M. C. , Barut C.

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY, vol.34, no.2, pp.671-678, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 34 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.4067/s0717-95022016000200040
  • Title of Journal : INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MORPHOLOGY
  • Page Numbers: pp.671-678

Abstract

The aim of the present study is to determine the frequency of the occurrence of supraorbital foramen/notch (SOF/N) in the skulls of the people who lived in the modern era and the late Byzantine era, to determine the symmetry and the asymmetry between the two halves of the skulls by measuring the linear distance to various landmarks, to check the consistency between the location of the SOF/N and the golden ratio by calculating the ratio between linear distances and to evaluate the differences between the skulls from both historical periods. In the study, the frequency of the occurrence of the supraorbital notch in the skulls from the Byzantine era was found to be 26.60 % on the right and 13.30 % on the left while it was 14.30 % on the right and 9.52 % on the left in the skulls belonging to modern humans. In the skulls belonging to the Byzantine era, the average distance between SOF/N and the sagittal axis passing along the lateral orbital wall was found to be 34.81 +/- 2.51 mm and 32.99 +/- 2.81 mm respectively on the right and the left while it was 33.14 +/- 2.19 mm and 33.39 +/- 2.06 mm in the skulls belonging to modern era. The average distance between the SOF/N and the sagittal plane passing along the midline of the skull was found to be 24.55 +/- 2.79 mm and 21.57 +/- 2.44 mm on the right and the left respectively in the skulls belonging to the Byzantine era while it was 0.04 +/- 3.30 mm and 20.96 +/- 2.37 mm in the skulls belonging to the modern era. The average distance between the SOF/N and sagittal plane passing along the medial orbital wall was found to be 23.78 +/- 3.60 mm and 23.81 +/- 3.20 mm on the right and the left respectively in the skulls belonging to the Byzantine era while it was found to be 22.23 +/- 3.29 mm and 23.97 +/- 1.93 mm in the skulls belonging to the modern era. The average value of the distance between the sagittal planes passing along the lateral and medial sides of the orbit and the ratios between the distance from SOF/N to the sagittal plane passing along the lateral side of the orbit was found to be 1.47 +/- 0.21 mm and 1.60 +/- 0.08 mm respectively in the skulls belonging to the Byzantine era and the modern era. No significant difference was found between this ratio and the golden ratio; the average value of the ratios between the distance from the SOF/N to the sagittal plane passing along the midline of the skull and the distance from the SOF/N to the sagittal plane passing along the lateral side of the orbit was found to be 0.98 +/- 0.26 mm and 1.04 +/- 0.36 mm respectively in the skulls belonging to the Byzantine era and the modern era. A significant difference was found between this ratio and the golden ratio for both historical periods (modern society and late Byzantine period) (p < 0.005). The comparison of the relevant anatomic characteristics of the SOF/N is very important for anthropologists while a broad knowledge on proportional calculations regarding morphometric values and the location are important for reconstructive surgeons and the experts in forensics and pain control.