To our knowledge, there are no studies on the effects of exercise in patients with severe schizophrenia-related disability or in nursing home settings. Again, the literature search on the influence of exercise on insight and resilience gives no results except mind-body exercises. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise on psychotic symptoms, depression, functionality, insight and resilience in patients with severe schizophrenia-related disability living in nursing home setting. Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia were recruited. Exercise group with 20 patients who continued resistance exercise for 60 min, 2 days a week, for 3 months; and treatment as usual (TAU) group with 19 patients. All patients were administered Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms, Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS), Schedule for Assessment of Insight (SAI), Functional Remission of General Schizophrenia Scale (FROGS), Resilience Scale for Adults (RSA) at baseline and 3 months after. There were no significant differences between the groups for baseline and third month scores. In both groups significant decrease in SANS scores, significant increase in scores of FROGS total and social functioning, daily life skills subscale and RSA perception of the self were observed. In exercise group, significant decrease in CDSS scores, and significant increase in SAI awareness of illness, FROGS health and treatment, occupational functioning scores were found. Exercise combined with TAU may be effective in increasing awareness of illness and alleviating depression in chronic schizophrenia.