Biomonitoring and Source Identification of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) Using Pine Tree Components from Three Different Sites in Bursa, Turkey


ARCHIVES OF ENVIRONMENTAL CONTAMINATION AND TOXICOLOGY, vol.78, no.4, pp.646-657, 2020 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 78 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00244-020-00722-1
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, PASCAL, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Chemical Abstracts Core, Chimica, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, Greenfile, INSPEC, MEDLINE, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.646-657
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Pine trees are used as biomonitoring agents to evaluate atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Due to industrialization, urban construction, and rapid population growth, the city of Bursa is experiencing air pollution. In this study, PAHs were measured in pine tree branches and needles at a wastewater treatment plant site, an industrial site, and semirural site in Bursa for 12 months. The concentrations fluctuated depending on the characteristics of the areas. The lowest concentration value was measured in the semirural site while the highest value was determined in the wastewater treatment plant site. The PAH concentrations in pine needles ranged from 24 to 2565 ng/g dry weight (DW) and in pine branches from 163 to 2871 ng/g DW for 16 PAHs. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, and fluoranthene were determined as dominant species in both tree components. Diagnostic ratios, ring profile, principal component analysis, the coefficient of divergence, and the Pearson correlation coefficient methods were used in the definition of sources of PAHs in the sampling sites, although all source identification methods have advantages and disadvantages. According to the results, the PAHs mainly originated from biomass and coal burning, traffic, and mixed sources. It also was concluded that three sampling sites showed higher PAH concentrations during winter, and the main PAH sources were similar.