Atmospheric dry deposition fluxes of trace elements measured in Bursa, Turkey


Tasdemir Y. , Kural C.

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION, vol.138, no.3, pp.462-472, 2005 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 138 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2005
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.envpol.2005.04.012
  • Title of Journal : ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION
  • Page Numbers: pp.462-472
  • Keywords: trace elements, dry deposition, deposition velocity, enrichment factors, particles, greased surface, surrogate surface, POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC-HYDROCARBONS, HEAVY-METALS, POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYLS, CHEMICAL-COMPOSITION, COARSE PARTICLES, SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS, CENTRAL TAIWAN, SAMPLING SITE, LAKE-MICHIGAN, PARTICULATE

Abstract

Trace element dry deposition fluxes were measured using a smooth. greased. knife-edge surrogate surface (KSS) holding greased Mylar strips in Bursa, Turkey. Sampling program was conducted between October 2002 and June 2003 and 46 dry deposition samples were collected. The average fluxes or crustal metals (Mg, Ca, and Fe) were one to four orders of magnitude higher than the fluxes of anthropogenic metals. Trace element fluxes ranged from 3 (Cd) to 24 230 (Ca) mu g m(-2) d(-1). The average trace element dry deposition fluxes measured in this study were similar to those measured in other urban areas, In addition, ambient air samples were also collected simultaneously With flux samples and concentrations of, trace elements, collected with a TSP sampler, were between 0.7 and 4900 ng m (3) for Cd and Ca, respectively. The overall trace element dry deposition velocities, calculated by dividing the fluxes to the particle phase concentrations ranged from 23 +/- 1.7 cm s (4) (Pb) to 11.1 +/- 6.4 cm s (1) (Ni). These values are in good agreement with the values calculated using similar techniques. The anthropogenic and crustal contributions were estimated by employing enrichment factors (EFs) calculated relative to the average crustal composition. Low EFs for dry deposition samples were calculated. This is probable due to contamination Or local dust and its important contribution to the collected samples. (C) 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.