In vitro antiviral activity of Thymbra spicata L. extract on bovine respiratory viruses (BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1)

Toker E. B., Yeşilbağ K.

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, vol.132, no.4, pp.2625-2632, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 132 Issue: 4
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/jam.15418
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, PASCAL, Aqualine, Aquatic Science & Fisheries Abstracts (ASFA), BIOSIS, Biotechnology Research Abstracts, CAB Abstracts, EMBASE, Environment Index, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, Geobase, MEDLINE, Pollution Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, DIALNET
  • Page Numbers: pp.2625-2632
  • Keywords: antiviral activity, bovine respiratory viruses, carvacrol, inactivation, Thymbra spicata L, OREGANO ESSENTIAL OIL, CARVACROL, DISEASE, THYMOL, TYPE-1
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Aims Viral pathogens are the primary agents in bovine respiratory disease cases, and there is no direct effective antiviral drug application. Thymbra is a genus of oregano commonly found in Turkey. The primary component (34.9%) of the extract obtained from Thymbra spicata L. is the carvacrol which is used in traditional medicine. This study evaluates the potential antiviral activity and inactivation efficiency of T. spicata L. extract against bovine respiratory viruses, including BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1. Methods and Results To evaluate its effect on viral replication, viral titres were taken from infected cells treated with non-cytotoxic T. spicata L. extract concentrations (0.75% and 1.5%, 1.32 and 2.64 mu g/ml of carvacrol as active ingredient, respectively) and compared to non-treated infected cells. The viruses were treated directly with 1.5% T. spicata L. extract, and the viral titres were evaluated at certain time points to determine the efficiency of direct inactivation. The number of infectious virions for BCoV, BPIV-3, BRSV, BVDV and BoHV-1 treated with 1.5% T. spicata L. extract were decreased by 99.44%, 100.0%, 94.38%, 99.97% and 99.87%, respectively.T. spicata L. extract strongly inhibits the replication of mentioned viruses in a dose-dependent manner in vitro. In addition, T. spicata L. extract shared direct inactivation efficiency on the mentioned viruses in a time-dependent manner. Conclusion This study shows the antiviral efficiency of T. spicata L. on BRD-related viral agents for the first time. The oregano species T. spicata and its main component, carvacrol, may have a potential for antiviral activity in the alternative treatment of respiratory viral diseases in cattle. Significance and Impact of the Study Given the similarity of replication strategies, obtained data suggest the possible efficiency of T. spicata L. on human respiratory viruses.