Educational Planning, vol.13, no.1, pp.3-19, 2001 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions)
The literature on transformational leadership is reviewed to
provide a theoretical framework for leaders in educational organizations. Our
rapidly changing society calls for a new type of educational leadership.
Drawing on the work of J. M. Burns (1978) and B. M. Bass (1985) among others,
transactional leaders are distinguished from transformational leaders.
Transactional leaders exchange one thing for another, while transformational
leaders look for potential motives in followers and seek to satisfy higher
needs and engage the full person of the follower. Four behaviors of
transformational leaders that have been identified are: (1) idealized
influence; (2) inspirational motivation; (3) intellectual stimulation; and
(4) individualized consideration. A theory of transformational leadership as
a three-act drama has been developed by N. M. Tichy and M. A. Devanna (1986).
An example of the organization during Act 1 of transformational leadership
(recognizing the need for change) is provided in a discussion of a suburban
St. Louis (Missouri) school district. Act II (creating a vision and
mobilizing commitment) and Act III (institutionalizing change) are also seen
in the school district's responses to the need for change. Strategic
planning, like transformational leadership, is vision-driven planning for the
future. Both transformational leadership and strategic planning are necessary
for an organization to respond to the changes and uncertainties of