Eski Uygurcada Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva’yı Anlatan Bir Terim Üzerine


ÖZKAN A.

International Journal of Humanities and Art Researches | Uluslararası İnsan ve Sanat Araştırmaları Dergisi, vol.8, no.4, pp.432-441, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal)

Abstract

Siddhartha Gautama was born to Śuddhodāna and Mahāmāyā, who ruled in the city of Kapilavastu (now Padaria in southern Nepal) and belonged to the Śakya tribe. At the age of 29, after encountering various afflictions such as birth, death, old age and disease on the streets of Kapilavastu, he went into a six-year retreat. As a result of the hermitage, he reached enlightenment at the age of 35 and became Buddha. After reaching the rank of Buddhahood, he travelled and preached in many places throughout his life to spread the Buddhism doctrine he established. The event that really enabled the spread and development of Buddhism was the acceptance of Buddhism by King Aśoka in 274-237 BC. This enabled the doctrine to spread within India and to neighbouring countries. In the first century AD, disagreements among believers on various issues led to schism. As a result, Buddhism was divided into sects such as Hīnayana (Small Vehicle), Mahāyāna (Great Vehicle) and Vajrayāna (Diamond Vehicle), which later emerged as a branch of Mahāyāna. Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva has a very important place in all sects of Buddhism, and is considered to be one of the greatest disciples, especially in the Mahāyāna sect. In Sanskrit, Mañju means "beautiful" and śrī means "good fortune, virtue, great master", and he appears as the "Bodhisattva of Wisdom" in order to destroy ignorance. Mañjuśrī, the personification of transcendent (superior) wisdom, is the first Bodhisattva mentioned in Buddhist texts. For this reason, his name is often mentioned in the Lotus Sutra in connection with Śakyamuni. He is known as the "Prince of Dharma" because of his deep wisdom. His mantra is "oṃ a ra pa tsa na dhīḥ" in Tibetan and "oṃ arapacana dhīḥ" in Sanskrit, and members of the Mahāyāna sect believe that worshipping him will give them permanent memory, wisdom, intelligence and eloquence. According to Chinese sources, the Turks were in contact with Buddhism during the First Kokturk Khaganate. Xiao Min Di, the founder of the Northern Zhou Dynasty, had a Turkish temple built in his capital and his successor Mukan Khan had an inscription erected at the point where he accepted Buddhism. In addition, the Buddhist monk in the embassy delegation sent to Tapar Khan by the North Qi emperor played an important role in Tapar Khan's Eski Uygurcada Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva’yı Anlatan 433 acceptance of Buddhism and presented him with the Mahāparinirvāna Sutra. By 840, as a result of the collapse of the Uighur Khaganate of Otuken, the Uighurs migrated to various geographies such as Kansu and the Tarim Basin. As a result, Buddhism increased its influence among the Uighurs. The oldest surviving documents date back to the IXth century. This shows that translation activities intensified at this time. This study is based on a certain phrase and its meaning in the Old Uyghur Mañjusrīnāmasaṃgīti of Tantric Turkish Buddhism based on Tibetan Buddhism. For this reason, analysing the text, taking into account the previous studies on the text, the meanings of the phrase in different languages, and the term meanings within the Buddhist doctrine constitute the skeleton of the study. For this reason, the method of document analysis, also known as document analysis, which is used to analyse the content of written documents in detail and systematically. The Old Uighurs, who adopted the Buddhist faith, translated the terms into their language while translating the texts of their own faith into their language. As a result, the terms belonging to Mañjuśrī, which have an important place in all sects of Buddhism, have found their equivalents in Old Uyghur in many works, especially Mañjusrīnāmasaṃgīti. The Old Uyghur phrase v(a)şir kädiltürtäçi uluġ käđilŧürtäçi ärür is translated in the Sanskrit version as व"#ालाकरालाला(ो व"#ालाि◌शरो-हः । (vajrajvālākarālākṣo vajrajvālāśiroruhaḥ) व"ावेशो महावेशः शता(ो व"लोचनः (vajrāveśo mahāveśaḥ śatākṣo vajralocanaḥ), In the Tibetan version rdo rje 'bar ba mig mi bzaṅ / skra yaṅ rdo rje 'bar baste / rdo rje 'bebs pa 'bebs pa che / mig brgya pa ste rdo rje'i mig, in the Chinese version as 熾焰金剛施惡眼金剛頭髮如焰熾金剛降臨大降臨具足百眼金剛眼(Chì yàn jīngāng shī è yǎn jīngāng tóufà rú yàn chì jīngāng jiànglín dà jiànglín jùzú bǎi yǎn jīngāng yǎn). A footnote in BT VIII provides information about the section v(a)şir kädiltürtäçi uluġ käđilŧürtäçi ärür in the Old Uyghur version. Kara and Zieme gave the meaning of "niederwerfen" for "kädiltür-" in the mentioned footnote and based on the example of "kärt-" used for humiliation in Kashgarli's work, they said that the word in the Old Uyghur work is a translation of the Tibetan text with a second meaning. He translated the sentence in the text as "Vajra-Niederwerfender, großer-Niederwerfender. (He who brings down the Vajra, he who brings down the great)" (1976: 103). On page 84 of Wayman's work published in 1985, the relevant passage is translated as "diamond-chain and great chain". In the footnotes section of the work, Narendrakīrti (75-3-2) is translated as "a lightning-type lustre called "diamond" is emitted from all the pores. This is called a chain, and as these chains accumulate without encountering any obstacles, they are called 'great chains'." In 2020, the Khyentse Foundation published the Global Report on the 200th birthday of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. In the Global Recitation of MAÑJUŚRĪ-NĀMA-SAṀGĪTI 《聖妙吉祥真實名經》全球持誦 [Universal Recitation of MAÑJUŚRĪ-NĀMA-SAṀGĪTI] published by the Khyentse Foundation within the scope of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo's 200th birthday celebrations in 2020, Sanskrit and Chinese versions of the text are given and English translation is made. The translation of the relevant passage on page 77 is "Vajracascade, great cascade". R. Davidson in The Litany of Names of Mañjushri translated the relevant passage as "...he is Vajravesha, in exalted possession... [...He is Vajraveśa, in exalted possession...]" and added a footnote for the word Vajraveśa and associated it with Vajraveśa, one of the four gate guardians (1981: 28). In addition, the relevant passage in the Mongolian version včir baγulγaγči yekede baγulγaγči is given the meaning of "baγu-: to decrease or become smaller, to go down or go away, to fall; to descend, to get off, to get off a riding animal or bicycle; (aeroplane) to land; to settle, to camp; to stand by, to stand in the way; to surrender, to give up and give up" in the Mongolian-Turkish dictionary (Ferdinand, 2003:113). The phrase can be translated as "Lightning (sacred instrument used in Buddhist ceremonies as a symbol of 'durable goods') descender, marvellous descender"

Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva, bütün Budizm mezhepleri içerisinde çok önemli bir yere sahip olmakla birlikte özellikle Mahāyāna mezhebi içerisindeki en büyük müritlerden biri olarak kabul edilmektedir. Sanskritçede Mañju “güzel”, śrī ise “iyi şans, fazilet, muhteşem efendi” anlamlarına gelmekte ve kendisi cehaleti yok etmek amacıyla ortaya çıkan “Bilgelik Bodhisattvası” olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. Bodhisattva, Çince 文殊师利 (Wén shū shī lì), Birman dilinde မဥ# $သရီ ိ(Mu juu seri), Japonca 文殊(Monju), 文殊師利 (Monjushiri) ya da 妙吉祥 (Myōkisshō), Tibetçe kdjam-dpal ve Eski Uygurcada Mançuşiri ismiyle anılmaktadır. Çin kaynaklarına göre I. Köktürk Kağanlığı döneminde Türkler Budizmle ilişki içerisindedir. Kuzey Zhou Hanedanının kurucusu olan Xiao Min Di, başkentinde bir Türk tapınağı yaptırmış ve halefi olan Ming Di ise Mukan Kağan’ın Budizm’i kabul ettiği noktada bir yazıt diktirmiştir. Ayrıca Kuzey Qi imparatoru tarafından Tapar Kağan’a gönderilen elçilik heyetinde bulunan Hui Lin isimli Budist rahip, Tapar Kağan’ın Budizm’i kabul etmesinde önemli rol oynamış ve ona Mahāparinirvāna Sutra’yı hediye etmiştir. 840 yılına gelindiğinde Ötüken Uygur Kağanlığının yıkılması sonucunda Uygurlar Kansu ve Tarım Havzası gibi çeşitli coğrafyalara göç etmişlerdir. Bunun sonucunda Budizm Uygurlar arasında etkisini artırmıştır. Günümüze ulaşan belgelerin en eski tarihlisi IX. yüzyıla aittir. Bu durum çeviri faaliyetlerinin bu tarihte yoğunluk kazandığını göstermektedir. Popüler bir Bodhisattva olması sebebiyle Mañjuśrī Bodhisattva’nın birçok adı ve Budizm literatüründe onu anlatan pek çok terim bulunmaktadır. Makalede Tibet Budizmine ait Eski Uygurca Mañjusrīnāmasaṃgīti (Mañjusrī’nin Niteliklerinin Övgüsü) eserine ait U 4736 ( T III M 225) numaralı fragmanın c sayfasında geçen v(a)şir kädiltürtäçi uluġ käđilŧürtäçi ibaresi ve anlamı üzerinde durulacaktır. Doküman analizi yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Veriler için Turfanforschung-Digitales Turfan-Archiv, metnin diğer dillerdeki versiyonları üzerine yapılan çalışmalar ve ilgili sözlükler kullanılmıştır.