Airborne particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) and associated metals in urban Turkey

Kendall M., PALA K., Ucakli S., Gucer S.

AIR QUALITY ATMOSPHERE AND HEALTH, vol.4, pp.235-242, 2011 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 4
  • Publication Date: 2011
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s11869-010-0129-9
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus
  • Page Numbers: pp.235-242
  • Bursa Uludag University Affiliated: Yes


Airborne particulate matter (PM) and associated metals were measured in a district of an industrial city in Western Turkey. We compared PM concentrations in Bursa, Turkey (Nilufer district) with international air quality standards. Turkish legislature adopted the EC Air Quality Framework in 2008, and compliance is required in the medium term. State-of-the-art reference methods were used for all measurements. A Partisol sampler measured urban background PM2.5 and PM10 between May 2007 and April 2008, and PM2.5 samples were later analysed for selected metals using ICP-MS. Average PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations over the year were 53 and 83 mu g/m(3), respectively. The annual mean PM2.5:PM10 ratio in Bursa was 0.64. PM2.5 and PM10 were highly correlated at the site (R=0.91 overall), especially in winter. In the cold seasons, the coarse and fine fractions were strongly correlated R=0.67 (p<0.1), while in the warm seasons, they were not (R=0.01). Sampler results correlated well with a nearby Government sampler. Current PM10 and PM2.5 levels in Bursa breach current and prospective EU air quality standards, with significant implications in public health.