Crude oil affects soil ecosystems, resulting in significant losses in soil quality. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of hydrocarbon pollution (crude oil) on soil enzyme activities and determine the removal of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) during an incubation period of 150 days. The potential use of wastewater sludge as a biostimulating agent in petroleum-contaminated soils was also evaluated. The degradation of crude oil in contaminated soil was significantly enhanced after the addition of wastewater sludge. The results also indicated that significant TPH degradation in crude oil-contaminated soils (80% for dose of 0.5% and 83% for dose of 5% at 18 degrees C) (94% for dose of 0.5% and 92% for dose of 5% at 28 degrees C) occurred after an incubation period of 150 days. Enhanced enzyme activity levels in contaminated soils indicated that crude oil (0.5% and 5%, w/w) stimulated microbial growth and enzyme activity in the soil environment. Urease activity (UA) levels in crude oil contaminated soils were generally higher than initial UA levels in soil during the incubation period. Soil UA exhibited a stronger response to petroleum treatment. Alkaline phosphatase (APA) and beta-Glucosidase (BGA) activities were not affected crude oil pollution. However, contamination of crude oil had a negatively effect on soil dehydrogenase activity (DHA).