The serratus anterior muscle in the rat is supplied by the serratus division of thoracodorsal vessels, in a pattern similar to man . The serratus anterior muscles were transferred to the groin area as a free muscle flap in 17 rats and as a free muscle graft in 13 rats. In the free muscle flap group, the serratus anterior muscles of 8 of 10 rats survived; histological examination showed them to be viable and the vascular anastomoses were patent at the 30th day. In the free muscle graft group, all of the muscle grafts became necrotic. As a result, it is concluded that the microvascular transfer of serratus anterior muscles in rats is a useful small animal model for microsurgical laboratory training of clinical free flap transfers and also for performing pharmacological and biochemical studies in transplanted muscle.